How RNGs work at online casinos – Understanding randomness

RNG stands for random number generator. The RNG creates thousands of random numbers per second and each number corresponds to a certain game outcome. For example, in a slot game, each number generated by the RNG could correspond to a specific symbol on the reels. The RNG generates numbers continuously, even when the game is not active. The moment a player clicks “spin”, the RNG grabs the most recent random number to determine what symbols will come up.

How does an RNG work in slots?

Slots are a good example to understand how RNGs determine game outcomes. The symbols on a slot machine are assigned numbers. The RNG will randomly generate any number between 1 and 12 for each reel – one number for the first reel, another for the second, and another for the third.

The numbers 11, 7, and 2 are generated. This combination corresponds to a cherry on reel 1, orange on reel 2, and bar on reel 3. In this way, each unique combination of numbers the RNG spits out translates into a certain combination of symbols. The RNG runs through thousands of number combinations per second and the results are randomly delivered to players.

Key properties of RNGs

Truly random RNGs have some key properties that make them suitable for use in online gambling.

  • Uniform distribution – All numbers in the sequence have an equal probability of being chosen. It ensures no biases exist.
  • Independence – Past random values do not impact future ones. Each result is independent of what came before it.
  • Unpredictability – There are no discernible patterns that players can take advantage of. The sequences appear random.
  • Testability – RNGs are repeatedly tested for randomness using statistical methods. It ensures they are working properly.

Without these core properties, RNGs could be manipulated or predicted by players. The best casino online usa understands this and takes steps to ensure their RNG technology adheres to these principles.

RNG testing and certification

To prove their RNGs are truly random, online casinos have their systems tested and certified by independent auditing companies. Groups like eCOGRA analyze the mathematical randomness of outputs by using methods like.

  1. Chi-square tests – Checking if each potential outcome occurs the expected number of times
  2. Runs test – Testing for unusual streaks above or below the expected mathematical probability
  3. Poker tests – Seeing if poker hand combinations follow a proper distribution

If the RNG passes these stringent evaluations, the auditors certify it as compliant with industry standards. Players then trust that the technology is robust and fair.

RNGs in live dealer games

RNGs also appear in live dealer games. While results come from real cards and wheels, the order is still determined randomly. In live blackjack, for example, the cards are shuffled by an automatic shuffler that relies on an RNG to randomly arrange the deck. The order of the cards coming out is therefore unknown to both players and dealers. RNGs add a layer of randomness that prevents cheating and ensures honest results in live table games. Even though real cards and wheels are used, RNGs are still the technology powering the randomness.